Tag Archives: wealth

The Obligation of Hajj

When we are asked the meaning of Hajj, pilgrimage is usually the first word that pops up in our mind, but we need to recognize the difference between meanings/definitions and translations

Pilgrimage is the translation of Hajj in English, but Hajj in itself is defined as intention

Yes surprisingly enough Hajj also means intention, so the meaning of the words of Allah, the Most High in Surah Al’ Imran (97) is the intention to visit the House of Allah.

فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

(Aal Imran, 3:97)

“In it are clear signs [such as] the standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves – then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds.”

It has been said that Hajj is an obligatory act but as a species who claim to have intelligence, we require proofs and evidences for any statement made, so here are the proofs that mandate Hajj obligatory:

1.

فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ 

(Aal-Imran, 3:97)

In it are clear signs [such as] the standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves – then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds

وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ ۚ     

(Al-Baqarah, 2:196)

And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of the Prophet) The Hajj and ‘Umrah (i.e.the pilgrimage to Makkah)

  1. It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas that the Messenger of Allah stood up and said:

Allah, Most High, has decreed Hajj for you. Al-Aqra’ bin Habis At-Tamimi said: “Every year, O Messenger of Allah?” But he remained silent, then he said: “If I said yes, it would become obligatory, then you would not hear and obey. Rather it is just one Hajj.”

  1. Hajj is one of the pillars of Islam

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: Islam is based on (the following) five (principles):

  1. To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).
  2. To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly.
  3. To pay Zakat (i.e. obligatory charity).
  4. To perform Hajj. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca)
  5. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan

All these evidences indicate to the fact that Hajj is indeed obligatory. It is obligatory to perform it once, anything more is voluntary

Now that we have established the fact that Hajj is an obligation, let us now see on whom is it obligatory, is it obligatory for all the Muslims or are there some specifics that need to be highlighted.

There are five conditions that make Hajj obligatory on a person:

1 – Being Muslim

This applies to all acts of worship, because worship done by a kaafir is not valid.

2 and 3 – being of sound mind and being an adult

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“The pen is lifted from three [and does not record their deeds]: from one who is sleeping, until he wakes up; from a child until he reaches puberty, and from one who is insane until he comes to his senses.”

Narrated by Abu Dawood, 4403; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

So a child is not obliged to perform Hajj, but if his parents take him for Hajj, his Hajj is valid; the child will have the reward of Hajj and his parents will also have a reward, because when a woman lifted up a child and asked, “Is there Hajj for this one?” the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Yes, and you will have the reward.” Narrated by Muslim

4 – Being free

Hajj is not obligatory for a slave, because he is distracted by his duties towards his master.

5 – Being able to do it

This includes being able both physically and financially.

What is meant by being physically able is that one is sound in body and can bear the hardship of travelling to the sacred House of Allah.

What is meant by being financially able is that a person should have surplus funds that are sufficient for doing Hajj after paying off debts and taking care of shar’i obligations and basic needs

If a person is physically and financially able to do Hajj, then he is obliged to hasten to do Hajj.

  • If he is not physically and financially able, or if he is physically able but he is poor and has no wealth, then he is not obliged to do Hajj.
  • If a person is financially able but he is not physically able, then we look at the matter further.
  • If his problem is something that he hopes will disappear, such as a sickness from which he hopes to recover, then he should wait until Allah heals him, then do Hajj.
  • If his problem is one for which there is no hope that it will disappear, such as a person with cancer or an old person who cannot do Hajj, then he has to appoint someone to do Hajj on his behalf, and the duty to perform Hajj is not waived because of his physical inability if he is financially able.

The evidence for that is the report narrated by Bukhari (1513) according to which a woman said:

“O Messenger of Allah, Allah’s command to the people to perform Hajj has come when my father is an old man and cannot sit firmly in the saddle. Can I perform Hajj on his behalf?” He said: “Yes.”

Therefore, in this article we have now learnt that Hajj is obligatory and then have learnt on whom it is obligatory. In Sha Allah in our next article we shall look into the benefits and virtues of Hajj.

Refer to https://islamqa.info/en/41957 for more insight on those whom Hajj is obligatory on
Click on the ahadith to know their references

Who is a Religiously Committed Wife?

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) encouraged marrying women who are religiously committed, as he said: “Women may be married for four things: their wealth, their lineage, their beauty and their religious commitment. Choose the one who is religiously-committed, may your hands be rubbed with dust (i.e., may your prosper).” Narrated by al-Bukhari, 5090; Muslim, 1466.

A religiously committed muslim woman is to be sought for marriage as the Prophet told us as our purpose in life is to worship Allah and a religious woman would help us to do that and make our children ongoing charity for us even after our death, now what are the characteristics of this greatly admired woman?

  1. Aqeedah:

A woman with the right aqeedah i.e; she is a Muwahid who has not fallen in innovations and other misguidance is the right woman as she is the home maker and will have a great impact on the husband and children.

  1. An obedient woman, who obeys her husband:

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: It was said to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): Which of women is best? He said: “The one who makes (her husband) happy when he looks at her, obeys him when he tells her to do something, and does not disobey him with regard to herself or her wealth in a way that he dislikes.” (Narrated by al-Nasaa’i (3131)) ‘

Three things are mentioned here in this hadith-

(i) When he looks at her, he is happy with her: her religious commitment, attitude, behaviour and appearance.

(ii) When he is away from her, she protects his honour and his wealth.

(iii) If he tells her to do something, she obeys him, so long as he does not tell her to commit sin..

Al-Ansari said, “The woman is the key to the security in every society and the foundation of the family.” (Al-Majmu’1/173)

  1. Enjoins her husband to do good deeds and stops from bad deeds.

A good wife will always advise her husband to do good and will have better ways to stop him from doing anything haram. Allah says, “…They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and hasten to good deeds. And those are among the righteous.” (3:114)

It is reported that Umar ibn Al Khattab said, “There is no goodness in people who don’t give advice and there is no goodness in people who don’t like to be advised.” (Risaalaat Al-Mustarshideen, 71)

  1. She should fulfill her husband’s rights with regard to his wealth and herself, even when her husband is absent.

“If a man is married with a righteous wife, he will live a harmonious life, even if he is poor.” (Sh Salih Al Fawzan, Al-Ittihaf, pg 858)

Allah says in the Quran:

“Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient (to Allah and to their husbands), and guard in the husband’s absence what Allah orders them to guard (e.g. their chastity and their husband’s property).” [al-Nisa’ 4:34].

Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“guard in the husband’s absence” means: they are obedient to their husbands and even in their absence they guard themselves and their husband’s wealth, seeking the help of Allah in that, because no one can do that by himself or herself, for the self is inclined towards evil, but the one who puts his trust in Allah, He will suffice him and help him in his religious and worldly affairs.

(Tafseer al-Sa’di)

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

A righteous wife will be with her righteous husband for many years, and she is the one who is meant in the hadeeth in which the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “This world is temporary conveniences and the best of its comforts is a believing wife, who when you look at her she pleases you and if you tell her to do something she obeys you, and if you are away from her she protects you with regard to  herself and your wealth.”

  1. Doing acts of worship and obedience, and refraining from haraam things.

Al-Khateeb al-Sharbeeni al-Shaafa’i (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

According to the hadeeth: “If a woman prays her five (daily prayers), fasts her month (Ramadaan), guards her chastity and obeys her husband, it will be said to her: Enter Paradise by whichever of the gates of Paradise you wish.” Narrated by Ahmad (1664)

  1. She should have knowledge and seek it:

Having knowledge of the deen is important to do all of the above.

Therefore, women possessing these qualities are desirable for marriage, even though we should keep in mind that the level of each of these characteristics may differ in different women but the more modest, knowledgeable and devoted to worship a woman is, the more desirable she is as a wife.

Ahmad ibn Harb said, “if six characteristics are gathered in a woman her goodness is perfected,

  • Guarding her five prayers
  • Yielding to her husband
  • Pleasing her Lord
  • Guarding her tongue from backbiting and gossiping
  • Forsaking worldly possessions
  • Being patient following tragedy

(Siyar A’lam An-Nubala)

May Allah give our youth spouses who are better for them here and in the hereafter. Ameen

“A pious woman, even if she’s not stunningly beautiful, her character and religion make her attractive.” (Shakyh Ibn Uthaymeen, Sharh Riyadh As-Saliheen, No. 280)

 

 

 

The Epic Beginnings of Mawlid Pt 2

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Now knowing that it was the Ismaili Fatimid dynasty that came up with this festival, let us identify the main person who developed this centenary.

The person who inaugurated this invented festival is Umar al-mulla, a venerated Sufi ascetic and not a scholar of Islam, who lived in the city of Mosul.

Under the entry of Muhammad b. Abd al-Bāqī (d. 571 AH), a Ḥanbalite scholar from Mosul, he mentions how Umar al-Mulla was greatly respected in the city of Mosul, and a disagreement happened between the two of them, which resulted in Muhammad b. Abd al-Bāqī being falsely accused of stealing, because of which he was beaten.
Writes Ibn Rajab [Dhayl, vol. 1, p. 254], “As for this Umar, he outwardly showed himself to be a pious man and ascetic, but I believe him to be [a follower] of the innovated groups. And this incident [with Muhammad b. Abd al-Bāqī] also shows his injustices and transgressions [against others].”
Also Ibn Kathīr (d. 774 AH) mentions that when Nūr al-Dīn Zangi abolished the unjust taxes that had been levied on the people, Umar al-Mulla actually wrote him a letter chastising him for his decision, and saying that this would lead to an increase of evil in the land. At which Nūr al-Dīn responded back, saying,

“Allah created the creation, and legislated the Sharīʻah, and He knows best what is beneficial for them. So if He knew that there should have been an increase [in revenue from taxes], He would have legislated it for us. Hence, there is no need for us to take more than what Allah has decreed, since whoever adds to the Sharīʻah has presumed that the Sharīʻah is incomplete and he needs to perfect it by his addition. And to do this is arrogance against Allah and against what He has legislated, but darkened minds will never be guided, and may Allah guide us and you to the Straight Path” [al-Bidāyah wa-l-Nihāyah, vol. 12, p. 805].

In what can only be described as a reversal of traditional roles, it was the ruler who chastised the ʻsaint’ when Umar al-Mulla actually encouraged the collection of unjust taxes, while Nūr al-Din sought to abolish it. Before proceeding, it is noteworthy that the mawlid instituted by Umar al-Mulla involved singing poems in praise of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and nothing more than this.
Umar al-Mulla, was in charge of a zawiya (Sufi monastery). This zawiya was a popular place for the local leaders and noblemen to visit, and in particular “…every year, during the days of the mawlid of the Prophet, (peace and blessings be upon him), he would invite the governor of Mosul, along with the poets, who would come and sing their poems, and be rewarded [by the governor] for this.”

The city of Mosul was located in a relatively small province, and remained under the control of the larger Zangid Empire. Hence, it was only natural that mawlid celebrations performed in Mosul would not garner too much attention nor have a large budget at their disposal to use for the mawlids. Rather, for this to occur, it had to be sponsored by a dynasty that could afford to do so, and this dynasty was found in the neighboring province of Irbil, a city less than a day’s journey from Mosul. As news of the mawlid spread to this city, the ruler of the semi-autonomous province, Muẓẓafar al-Dīn Kokburi (d. 630/1232), took it upon himself to celebrate the mawlid in an extremely lavish manner.
It would take another few decades for the mawlid to spread to Irbil, but eventually, sometime in the early part of the seventh century, Muẓẓafar al-Dīn became famous for the extravagant mawlid ceremonies that were sponsored through the State Treasury of his principality.

The historian Ibn Khallikān (d. 681/1282) mentions that Muẓẓafar al-Dīn was known for his generosity, for he had built many khānqahs (monasteries) for the Sufis to worship in. Ibn Khallikān was also from Irbil, and was a friend of Muẓẓar al-Dīn, and witnessed first-hand the mawlid celebrations.
Writes Ibn Khallikān:

Two days before the mawlid, Muẓẓafar al-Dīn would take out camels, cows and sheep a large number, beyond counting and he would send these animals, accompanied with drums and song and other instruments, until they would reach the large open ground [outside the city]. Then, these animals would be slaughtered, and pots would be set up, and all types of different foods would be cooked, until finally it would be the Night of the Mawlid itself [meaning the night before the mawlid]. On that night, he would allow samāʻas [special poems] to be sung in his fort, and then he would descend down [to the people], the procession being led by countless candles. Amongst these candles were two, or four – I forget now – that were so large that each one had to be carried on a mule, and behind it was a man in charge of keeping the candle erect [on the mule], until it reached the Sufi monastery. Then, on the very morning of the mawlid, he commanded that the Royal Robe be taken out from the Palace to the khānqah (Sufi monastery), by the hands of the Sufis. Each Sufi would wear an expensive sash around his hand, and they would all walk in a procession, one behind the other – so many in number that I could not verify their quantity. Then, Muẓẓafar al-Dīn himself would descend to the khānqah, and all of the noblemen and leaders and gentry would gather together. A chair would be placed for the preachers, and Muẓẓafar al-Dīn himself would be in a special tower made of wood [that he had built for the occasion]. It had many windows, some of which faced the people and others faced the open ground, which was a large ground of immense size. The infantry would also gather there, in procession. So Muẓẓafar al-Dīn would listen throughout the day, sometimes looking at the people and sermons, and sometimes at the infantry, and this would continue until the infantry finished their processions. Then, a general tablecloth would be laid out for the poor, and all who wished could eat from it, bread and other types of foods beyond count! And there was another tablecloth laid out as well, for the people of the monastery, those close to the throne, and while the sermons would be delivered, he would call [each speaker] one by one, and the noblemen and leaders and guests who had come for this season: scholars, and preachers, and reciters, and poets, and he would give each of them garments, and they would then return to their seats. Once this was finished, they would all gather at the tablecloth to partake of the food. This would continue until the ʻasr prayer, or even after that, and he would spend the night there, and the samaʻās would continue to the next day. And this would be done every year, and what I have described is in fact a condensed summary of the reality, for to mention it in detail would be too cumbersome and take a long time. Finally, when these ceremonies would be completed, he would gift an amount to every visitor who had come from afar, as provision for his journey home. And I have already mentioned how, when Ibn Diya passed by Irbil, he wrote up a work regarding the mawlid, because of what he had seen Muẓẓafar al-Dīn do, and because of this he was gifted a thousand gold coins, along with the generous hospitality he was shown for the duration of his stay.

From this passage, it is clear that the custom of the mawlid was already known to Abū Shāmah in Damascus, but he points out that the celebration occurs in Irbil, and not in Damascus. Hence, at this stage, in the middle of the seventh century, news of the mawlid has reached Damascus, which is around 500 miles away, but the city of Damascus itself had yet to start its own mawlid.

It is also striking to note the similarities between the Fatimid celebrations of the mawlid and the ones sponsored by Muẓẓafar al-Dīn: in both cases, the pomp and pageantry and generosity lavished upon the population must have played a vital role in popularizing these rulers amongst the people.

Dear readers, now that we have introspected at the origins of this festival, we see that it has in no way any relation to the times of the Prophet or his Sahabas, as a matter of fact, not a single report exists that show any one of the sahabas celebrating this “invented occasion” rather it was initiated by the fatamids, a corrupt cult and by a namesake “saints.”

Then why should we the followers of the Prophet now start following a man such as Umar Al Mulla, who instigated the increment of taxes among other things.

My dear readers, it is incumbent that we appreciate the fact that this celebration is nothing less than innovation, our prophet never advocated it, neither did his Sahabas, then why do we yet insist on celebrating something which has no basis in our religion as Muslims and only endears the use of our wallets on extravagant purchases.

We ask Allah for guidance.

Ameen.

Bint Hasan

Al-Warith

“And indeed, it is We who give life and cause death, and We are the Inheritor.” (Surah al-Hijr: 23)

The Name “Al-Warith” occurred three times in the Qur’an; all in the plural form. Linguistically, “Al-Warith” means an heir, inheritor, owner, sustainer, and survivor. The general usage of the word “inheritor” means a person who receives estate of another after death which legally wasn’t in his/her. How is Allah “the Inheritor”?

Allah “Al-Warith” is the Only One who remains after everything perishes in the heavens and the earth. He is the Successor who has/had no predecessor.  He is, and has always been, the Owner of Everything which He bequeaths.  When He blesses us with life and sustenance, we return to Him leaving both (death). Allah (Glory be to Him) is the best Inheritor.

  • Allah (Praise be to Him) inherits from His bounties to whomever He wills and to whomever He loves:

“Moses said to his people, “Seek help through Allah and be patient. Indeed, the earth belongs to Allah. He causes to inherit it whom He wills of His servants. And the [best] outcome is for the righteous.” (Surah al-A’raaf: 128)

  • He (Glory be to Him) makes His true believers inheritors over the disbelievers in this life and the hereafter:

“And He caused you to inherit their land and their homes and their properties and a land which you have not trodden. And ever is Allah, over all things, competent.” (Surah al-Ahzab: 27)

  • He (Glory be to Him) chose amongst them inheritors of His Books though we have differences in levels, conditions, etc., but everyone got their part of the Books’ inheritance:

“Then we caused to inherit the Book those We have chosen of Our servants; and among them is he who wrongs himself, and among them is he who is moderate, and among them is he who is foremost in good deeds by permission of Allah. That [inheritance] is what is the great bounty.” (Surah Fatir: 32)

Dear readers, let’s talk about inheritance of money about which Allah (Praise be to Him) says: “Your wealth and your children are but a trial…” (Surah at-Taghabun: 15)

Allah “Al-Warith” inspires the believers to spend his/her wealth in the cause of Allah (Glory be to Him) granted to you and made you His representatives:

“Believe in Allah and His Messenger and spend out of that in which He has made you successors. For those who have believed among you and spent, there will be a great reward.”  (Surah al-Hadid: 8)

Prophet Zakariyyah (may peace be upon him) asked Allah (Praise be to Him) for an heir when his wife was barren, and the result of his sincerity was as follows in the aayah:

“And [mention] Zakariyyah, when he called to his Lord, “My Lord, do not leave me alone [with no heir], while you are the best of inheritors.” So We responded to him, and We gave to him Yahya (John), and amended for him his wife. Indeed, they used to hasten to good deeds and supplicate Us in hope and fear, and they were to Us humbly submissive.”

It should also be noted that Prophets (peace be upon them all) never supplicated an heir for wealth but rather for inheritors of knowledge and Da’wah (calling towards Allah). Allah “Al-Warith” is the only One who makes us the successor and the predecessor of each other.

We also need to beware of the consequence of heedlessness towards what has been temporarily inherited to us because He (Glory Be to Him) says:

“And how many a city have We destroyed that was insolent in its [way of] living, and those are their dwellings which have not been inhabited after them except briefly. And it is We who were the inheritors.” (Surah al-Qasas: 58)

“Indeed, it is We who will inherit the earth and whoever is on it, and to Us they will be returned.” (Surah Mariam: 40)

In the above aayah, Allah “Al-Warith” warns every being who became heedless in this worldly life that this life will soon be separated from him.  Allah is informing that He is the Creator, the Owner and the Controller of all matters. All of the creation will be destroyed and only He, the Most High and Most Holy, will remain. There is no one who can claim absolute ownership and control of affairs besides Him. He is the Inheritor of all His creation. He is the Eternal, Who will remain after they are gone and He is the Judge of their affairs. Therefore, no soul will be done any injustice, nor wronged even the weight of a mosquito or an atom. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer)

Having learnt about the greatness of Allah’s Name “Al-Warith”, a believer develops the following characteristics:

  1. A believer acknowledges his good deeds as only true inheritance.

“That is Paradise, which We give as inheritance to those of Our servants who were fearing of Allah.” (Surah Mariam: 63)

  1. He also constantly fears Allah (Glory be to Him) in the issues of rights of inheritance and does not nor will do injustice to his/her inheritors.
  2. The only thing Prophets (May peace and blessings be upon them all) bequeathed knowledge, thus a believer embraces the circles of true knowledge.
  3. A believer always hopes that Allah (Praise be to Him) grants him/her progeny and never grieves if that favor hasn’t been granted anytime. He/she should supplicate: “My Lord, grant me [a child] from among the righteous.” (Rabbī hablī min as-Sāliheen)

“O Allah, give me pleasure in my hearing and my sight, and make it the inheritor from me, and aid me against whoever oppresses me, and take vengeance from him for me (Allāhumma matti`nī bisam`ī wa baṣarī waj`alhumal-wāritha minnī, wanṣurnī `alā man yaẓlimunī, wa khudh minhu bitha’rī)” (Jami’ at-Tirmidhi: 3604)

 

 

 

Signs of the Hour 5

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The Day of Judgement is the day when Allah will resurrect all of us. Allah will raise us from our graves and we will be held accountable for whatever good or evil we have done in this worldly life. So far we have discussed major signs and few minor signs of the Overwhelming Hour in our series; The Signs of the Hour.

In this article, we will be highlighting two minor signs relevant to wealth and riches of the world. Wealth can be defined as large amount of money and possessions or the value of all the property, possessions, and money that someone or something has. Two minor signs which are related to wealth are ­

  • ​Pervasiveness of wealth lawfully or unlawfully: Acquiring wealth whether halaal or haraam has become pervasive. Generally speaking, people’s goal in this world is only to accumulate money. They endeavour in gaining wealth. Little do they know that the greatest wealth is to live content with the blessings given to us by Allah, which we often take for granted.
  • ​Destitute goat-herders vying with one another in the construction of magnificent buildings: Another sign before the commencement of the Hour is that the people would compete and face off with one another in constructing lofty and luxurious buildings. Whenever we acclaim the lofty and monumental buildings, we think that it is a sign of the Striking Hour which have been predestined. The Last Day starts when Allah orders one of the angels to blow the Trumpet for the first time. Upon this, the earth will quake, the heavens will split asunder, the stars will scatter, the mountains will vanish, and all the people will die.

“And the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allah wills.” [Quran 39: 68] ​

My advice to you, my dear brothers and sisters is; ­spend majority of your time of during the day by worshipping Allah. Remember him at the time of ease and difficulty. May Allah (Glory Be To Him) guide us on the straight path and May He light up our faces on The Day Of Judgment. May Peace And Blessings Of Allah Be Upon The Messenger And His Family. Ameen

Bint Nayeem Writer, AAT